Below are links to the 2013 ACPSA tables, which are presented in three groups of commodity/industry detail: aggregated tables, mid-level tables, and detailed tables. The "aggregated" 2013 ACPSA tables are also available from the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis.
By level of aggregation/detail, files are presented for each of the years 1998-2011. For more information on using and interpreting the ACPSA tables, please see How to Use the ACPSA Tables below and the Key to Aggregation of Commodities, 2013 ACPSA.
Aggregated tables (zip file)
Mid-level tables (zip file)
Detailed tables (zip file)
How to Use the ACPSA Tables
The 2013 ACPSA is reported in a series of tables for each of the years spanning 1998-2011. The ACPSA tables are reported at three levels of commodity and industry detail: aggregated tables, mid-level tables, and detailed tables. All three sets provide information on arts and cultural commodities produced and the industries making and providing arts and cultural goods and services. Additional data are reported for supply and demand, employment, and multipliers that measure the economy-wide impact of a change in demand for arts and culture.
The ACPSA offers tables grouped into three levels of detail: aggregated, mid-level, and detailed. The NEA ACPSA Data Profile includes a Key to Aggregation of Commodities, 2013 ACPSA. Like the ACPSA tables, the key is divided into two sections: "core arts and cultural production" and commodities "supporting arts and cultural production."
Core arts and cultural production includes commodities spanning the performing arts, museums, design services, and arts education. Supporting arts and cultural production comprises information commodities such as publishing, motion pictures, and sound recording, as well components of manufacturing, wholesale and retail trade, and construction.
Commodities supporting arts and cultural production also include promoters of the performing arts and art agents. "Art-support services" refer to arts-related grant-making services and unions. Moreover, commodities supporting arts and cultural production include government-operated museums, libraries, and parks, in addition to performing arts and fine arts departments of state colleges and universities.
To illustrate the aggregation of ACPSA commodities, consider software publishing, which, in the ACPSA, relates to video games and arts-related software such as photo-processing and CAD software. In the aggregated ACPSA tables, software publishing is counted under "information, electronic." In ACPSA tables reporting commodities at a mid-level of detail, software publishing is part of "all other electronic publishing services." The detailed ACPSA tables, meanwhile, show ACPSA software publishing.
Overview of ACPSA Tables
The following is an overview of ACPSA tables 1 through 6. It draws on the mid-level and detailed arts and cultural commodities, as defined in the Key to Aggregation of Commodities, 2013 ACPSA.
ACPSA Table 1. Production of Commodities by Industry
The first of the ACPSA tables reports arts and cultural commodities (rows) produced by arts and cultural industries (columns)—Table 1 is akin to the BEA's "make" table, which is generated from the input-output accounting system.1
Table 1 shows, for example, that the U.S. economy produced $915.9 billion in arts and cultural commodities in 2011.2 Of that amount, $418.3 billion was in core arts and cultural production, and $497.6 billion was in supporting production.
Reading from left to right in Table 1 illustrates the production by industry of specific ACPSA commodities. In 2011, for example, the U.S. produced $8.6 billion in interior design services. Reading from the columns in Table 1 shows that $7.6 billion of that output was produced by the interior design services industry.
Remaining interior design work was done by architectural services firms ($961 million), graphic design firms ($13 million), landscape architectural design services companies ($6 million), and other, non-ACPSA industries ($8 million).3
ACPSA Table 2. Output and Value Added by Industry
(Due to BEA policies on disclosure, Table 2 is reported only for ACPSA aggregated tables and for ACPSA tables with mid-level detail. The examples presented here draw on the mid-level tables.)
The BEA defines gross output of an industry as the market value of goods and services produced by an industry, including commodity taxes (e.g., excise and sales taxes). "Intermediate consumption" refers to an industry's use of goods and services, such as energy and material costs, used to produce and industry's commodities. Value added measures the contribution of the industry's labor and capital to its gross output, and is equal to industry output minus intermediate consumption. Value added is an industry's GDP.
Table 2 features six columns showing industry gross output, intermediate consumption, and value added. The first three columns measure these values for the industry, while the last three relate specifically to ACPSA production by that industry.
To illustrate, in 2011, interior, industrial, and graphic design (as a combined industry) generated $20 billion in design services output. Of that amount, $2.6 billion was intermediate consumption (goods and services the industry used to produce design), resulting in value added of $17.4 billion.
However, not all output and value added generated by the design industry is arts and cultural. For example, design firms also offer engineering services and blueprint reproductions, which are not counted among ACPSA commodities. Consequently, ACPSA gross industry output and value added differ from the estimates reported for the industry at large. In 2011, for instance, 97 percent of gross output and value added by the design industry was arts and cultural, i.e., interior, industrial, and graphic-design services.
For other industries producing arts and cultural commodities, the share of output allotted specifically to the ACPSA is much lower. In 2011, the advertising industry reaped $126.4 billion in gross output and $93.6 billion in value added. However, less than 45 percent of that was "ACPSA advertising," which excludes the advertising industry's revenue from public relations and political consulting, media buying services, material distribution (e.g., coupons), and sign painting. ACPSA advertising is restricted to creative content.
Table 2 also provides a summary of arts and cultural production/value added relative to all U.S. economic production.4 For example, arts and cultural value added by all industries summed to $504.4 billion in 2011. Alternatively, value added by all U.S. industries, arts and cultural and all others, was $15.1 trillion—a figure analogous to U.S. GDP.5
ACPSA Table 3. Supply and Consumption of Commodities
Table 3 measures the supply of arts and cultural commodities, including U.S. imports, and consumption of ACPSA goods and services, including U.S. exports. Unlike ACPSA tables 1 and 2, the supply and consumption of commodities is measured in purchasers' value.
To illustrate, in 2011, domestic production of arts and cultural services totaled $915.9 billion (measured in producers' prices). In that year, however, the U.S. imported $28.9 billion in arts and cultural commodities (which adds to the supply of commodities), and drew down $71 million from inventories (which reduces supply).
For a number of arts and cultural commodities, the supply necessarily includes wholesale and retail trade margins. Sound recording commodities such as music recordings and books on tape, for instance, are supplied via wholesale and retail trade. In 2011, wholesale and retail trade margins added $34.0 billion and $61.0 billion, respectively, to the supply of ACPSA commodities.6
In total, domestic production, imports, changes in business inventories, and trade margins supplied $991 billion in arts and cultural goods and services in 2011.
How the supply of those commodities was consumed is also reported in Table 3. In 2011, for example, businesses and government purchased $427 billion (43 percent of all art and culture supplied) as intermediate inputs to their production. The remaining supply of arts and cultural commodities was consumed as final demand by U.S. persons, as investment, or by government and foreigners.7
In 2011, U.S. persons (i.e., personal consumption expenditures) consumed 35.5 percent, or $351.9 billion, of all art and culture supplied. Investment and government accounted for $34.4 billion and $137.9 billion, respectively. And in 2011, foreign consumers bought $39.4 billion in U.S. exports of arts and cultural commodities.
ACPSA Table 4. Employment and Compensation of Employees by Industry
The first two columns in Table 4 measure total employment and compensation by arts and cultural industries;8 the second two columns relate to employment and compensation tied to ACPSA production by those industries.9 In 2011, for example, the advertising services industry employed 392,900 workers who were compensated $46.8 billion.
However, only a fraction of services offered by the advertising industry is included in the ACPSA—namely, the ACPSA captures creative advertising content that excludes public relations, media-buying agents, material distribution (e.g., coupons and fliers), and sign-painting. In 2011, the advertising services industry's production of creative content employed 77,900 workers who earned $20.8 billion in compensation.
In 2011, the production of ACPSA commodities employed nearly 2 million workers and generated $289.5 billion in compensation.
ACPSA Table 5. Employment by Industry
Table 5 also reports ACPSA employment by industry. However, Table 5 adds industry employment multipliers to arrive at "total ACPSA-related employment." These industry multipliers estimate the outcome on employment resulting from a change in demand.
Changes in the demand for arts and culture can result from: increased (or decreased) government spending on the arts and culture; a successful advertising campaign aimed at the arts; or changes in exports of ACPSA commodities. If demand for the arts increases, then arts and cultural industries purchase more from their suppliers. The suppliers, in turn, hire more workers to meet this demand, resulting in a multiplier effect.
To illustrate, in 2011, 98,200 workers were employed by the performing arts industry to produce arts and cultural goods and services.10 In Table 5, these performing arts employees are labeled "direct ACPSA employment." The total industry employment multiplier for the performing arts industry is 1.5., which measures the change in total employment resulting from a change in the demand for the performing arts.
As shown in Table 5, a $1 million increase in demand for the performing arts raises employment from 98,200 performing arts workers to 152,100 workers in all industries—i.e., total industry employment.
Table 6. Output by Commodity
Multipliers are also the subject of Table 6. Here, however, "total commodity output" multipliers measure the effect on production for every $1 change in the demand for arts and cultural commodities.
Based on 2011 estimates, the total commodity output multipliers reported in Table 6 show that every $1 increase in the demand for performing arts commodities, including theater, opera, and dance, increases the production of all commodities by a factor of $1.64.
The commodity multipliers for the performing arts are close to the multiplier effect of all arts and cultural commodities ($1.67). The BEA estimates that a $1 million increase in demand for arts and cultural goods and services raises production of commodities from $962 billion in arts and cultural goods and services to $1.6 trillion in output of all commodities.11 If demand for arts and culture rises, then arts and cultural producers increase purchases of supplies and materials, resulting in a cascading multiplier effect throughout the U.S. economy.
1 See NEA Guide to the U.S. Arts and Cultural Production Satellite Account, Part I, Section 2, "The Inner Workings of the ACPSA: I-O accounts," available online at the NEA's ACPSA arts data profile page.
2 Table 1 commodities are measured in producers' prices.
3 Other industries offering interior design services include department stores.
4 The aggregated ACPSA Table 2 also reports the components of value added: compensation of employees; taxes on production and imports, less subsidies; and gross operating surplus.
5 Because the BEA's official estimates of GDP are revised frequently, they differ from estimates of total value added reported in ACPSA Table 2.
6 A commodity's trade margin is the difference between the selling price of the commodity and cost-of-goods sold, or the amount paid by the wholesaler or retailer to acquire the commodity.
7 Gross private fixed investment is defined as expenditures on capital goods to be used on productive activities in the U.S. economy.
8 Following from the BEA's accounting methodology, the ACPSA includes sole proprietors (self-employed workers), who are often excluded from other federal government counts of employment by industry.
9 Compensation includes wages and salaries plus non-cash benefits such as employer contributions to pension funds and health insurance.
10 The performing arts industry comprises theater companies; opera companies; dance troupes; symphony orchestras and chamber groups; other music groups and artists (e.g., rock, jazz, and country bands and artists); circuses; and other performing arts groups such as magic acts and ice-skating shows.
11 Table 6 reports commodity output at purchasers' value.